Keynote lectures

Integrating IAQ and Energy Efficiency

Buildings are the largest energy end use sector in countries around the globe. Concerns for the availability of energy supplies and the impact of energy use on the environment are driving a worldwide focus on energy end use reduction. In this push for dramatic changes in the energy use intensity of the building sector, it is essential that the fundamental importance of indoor environmental quality, particularly indoor air quality, not be lost. This presentation addresses: 1) the significance of indoor air quality in terms of its impact on health and productivity and associated costs; 2) the direct linkage between indoor air quality and building energy demands, including examples of efficient technologies for maintaining good indoor air quality; and 3) the need for an approach to building research, design, and operation that recognizes this connection.

Intelligent Building Electricity Demand Management and Interaction with Smart Grid

The supply and demand balance of a grid is essential and a great challenge concerning the grid overall efficiency and reliability as well as economics particularly due to the increasing use of renewable energy sources (such as solar and wind) of poor controllability. Smart grid has been considered as a promising solution to such challenge while involving all participants (from both power supply and demand sides). Buildings, as the largest energy consumer at the demand side, can and should play an important role in improving the grid balance and therefore grid efficiency and reliability as well as the economics of buildings themselves. With their passive and active thermal storage capabilities, buildings can be considered as distributed storages to relieve the grid imbalance and uncertainties. The energy demand characteristics of buildings available in Building Automation Systems are the very valuable information for grid optimization. Building demand management strategies aiming originally at enhancing the energy efficiency and operation cost savings can contribute to enhancing the grid overall balance when the information interaction between a grid and the buildings is established. This presentation will address the possibilities of information interaction between a smart grid and buildings, the contribution of buildings to smart grid optimization, the development of building demand management strategies under dynamic pricing as well as the active building electricity demand management at the supply side of the building air-conditioning systems.

Necessary Conditions for Intelligent Building Operation

An important sign of intelligence in any system is anticipatory behavior. Hence, an intelligent building systems control regime could be expected to be forward-looking: Control actions in such a regime would be examined in view of their future implications before they are instantiated. There may be different technical solution for the realization of a forward-looking or predictive building systems control. The present keynote focuses on an option involving the explicit run-time incorporation of numeric building performance simulation in the control process. Since its initial introduction some two decades ago, the concept of simulation-based predictive building systems control has been implemented and evaluated in a number of virtual and actual experiments. To be adopted in practice in a wide-spread and consistent manner, a number of conditions must be met. The present keynote briefly addresses some of these conditions, including i) control state space navigation, ii) microclimatic forecasting, iii) occupancy modeling, iv) monitoring-supported optimization-based simulation model calibration, v) automated real-time model maintenance, and vi) scalable multi-domain control logic distribution.

Keywords – building systems; intelligent operation; simulation-based predictive control

Ventilation and Air Distribution for Improved Health, Comfort, Performance and Energy Saving in Buildings – Future Challenges

This talk will address future challenges in the design of high quality indoor environments with low energy consumption. The limitations and the inefficiency of the current strategy of "total volume" heating, ventilation and air distribution in spaces will be discussed in terms of energy use and occupants' health, comfort and performance. A paradigm shift in the design of indoor environment will be suggested. The paradigm shift is based on the principles of advanced heating, cooling and ventilation (implying the rule "heat, cool and ventilate when, where and as much as needed"), control over the generation and spread of pollution (heat and contaminants) and active control of airflow distribution. It will make it possible to move from the design of a shared indoor environment towards the design of individual indoor environments and from the design of building services systems towards the development and implementation of occupant services systems. Compared to the present practice the new approach will make it possible to design for healthier indoor environments with reduced energy consumption. It will be possible to achieve a preferred and stimulating indoor environment for each occupant. The paradigm shift is focused on creating shared values for employees, employers, investors, building owners, government organizations and society as a whole. It will open new challenges for research and development in the field of heating, cooling and ventilating. It will lead to inventions, innovations, new technologies and products, new applications, new markets, energy saving, flexibility in the use of space, etc. Several examples of future solutions for indoor environmental design in buildings (office buildings, hospitals, vehicle compartments, etc.), based on the new paradigm shift, will be presented.

Human Centricity in Sustainable Indoor Environments

The importance of the human in the quest towards sustainability for indoor environments is argued from the premises of comfort, health and performance. The centricity of humans must dominate considerations in the design, technological innovation and operation of facilities. Acceptable comfort and health are baseline requirements that should not be compromised as this potentially leads to stress and infection that adversely impact on quality of living and working, perceived quality of the facility and its management. Allowing the indoor environment to dynamically and flexibly respond to humans enhances productivity and performance, with economic and social returns expected of high performance buildings.

How does IAQ affect performance? What do these studies suggest as plausible underlying mechanisms? Ho do airborne droplets move indoors? What is the influence of air distribution strategies on droplet transmission? What can be done to effectively mitigate these adverse effects?

This talk presents an overview of these findings, particularly those conducted at the National University of Singapore, and their implications, and discusses technological developments that may be effective as solutions.

Energy Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Housing: from Old to New Buildings

Housing is one of the most important human needs. It is normally provided by different residential buildings, e.g. family houses, dwellings, apartment buildings, etc. The existing residential building stock is old and consumes a large amount of energy, and the indoor environment in the buildings is often not acceptable. Therefore, refurbishment process is necessary which must be focused on energy efficiency and satisfactory environment for the users. The presentation aims the activities connected with renovation of building structures and modernisation of the HVAC systems, trying to change the old buildings to new ones with low energy demand and friendly indoor environment. The ultimate goal should be achieving a nearly zero energy building stock, with cost optimal and profitable investments during its life cycle, providing a healthy indoor environment and approaching the criteria on sustainable buildings.